Caitlin Coyle

      1. Which of the six principles reviewed above do you find the most difficult to interpret? And why?

      Perhaps the ‘redundancy principle’, just because of habit. I know the article is from 2013 but tbf to PPT, currently their online version has a feature called ‘Rehearse with a Coach’ which records you talking through a PPT and highlights the sections you are directly reading from. Hence there is a feature of PPT which helps reduce the ‘redundancy principle’, albeit it is not a default feature and I am guessing it is relatively new.

      2. Which ONE principle do you think might not work so well with non-native speakers?

      I wouldn’t necessarily put all non-native speakers in one category, as proficient speakers or even more advanced fluent speakers I don’t think would have many problems. Nevertheless, I agree with @spottypoppy that less proficient students may have issues with ‘signalling’. I sometimes get essays where students write a point and then start writing about something related and choose ‘However,…’ when perhaps ‘In addition,…’  would be more suitable.

      I also agree with @berniek and @georgie_l that less proficient language users may heavily depend on lecture slide information. Indeed when I designed my General English course for the first time, the Disability Service at the uni suggested putting up PPT slides and other materials up at least 24hrs in advance so students could make the slides more appropriate for themselves (font size and colour). Prior to students gaining access Blackboard Ally (on Moodle) can help teachers somewhat review the accessibility of their materials. As I understand putting up materials 24hrs in advance is (/is supposed be) standard practice, regardless of the language level of the learners. However, I did think with language learners there was an added benefit of reading the slides before class (checking vocab, etc). Of course with regards to the multimedia principle there is no reason materials have to be just reading materials.

      The modality principle really struck me in general. I was not specifically thinking about whether the speaker was from though. The idea that ‘hearing verbal info is better than reading it’- is this true for all people? I know the VAK/VARK theories are also critiqued and I would agree that multimedia approaches are preferable but I am not sure about the assertion that ‘hearing…is better than reading’ when one has to be chosen over the other. I am thinking  especially about Bloom’s higher level thinking skills. For example, drilling vocab for pron. might be good for basic recall, but if I want students to be analytical whilst they could listen to various lectures I think reading various written sources with the ability to highlight, copy and paste may be easier, or at least more familiar. I don’t know though as I am aware that Vygotsky and other social learning theorists put a lot of emphasis on communication for learning, and arguably speaking and listening are more social forms of communication than reading and writing. Therefore, seminar/tutorial listening I think may be better than reading in some cases but not just lecture listening.