Virginia Spyraki

      1. Which of the six principles reviewed above do you find the most difficult to interpret? And why?

      Temporal and spatial contiguity seems challenging in practice. Not so much difficult to interpret as it is difficult to use – for example, not presenting things in a consecutive order, but presenting words and visuals together. Sometimes we do break things down though dont we?

      I mean the article reflects good engineering practice but is it possible to do in Second language teaching?

      2. Which ONE principle do you think might not work so well with non-native speakers?

      The redundancy principle apparently does not show evidence of improved learning or comprehension. Reduced effort and increased task enjoyment does not translate into improved comprehension or task achievement when redundant captions are added to video. So much for suggesting subtitles to students when watching movies.