Robert Anderson

    Which of the six principles reviewed above do you find the most difficult to interpret? And why?

    I wouldn’t say that they are particularly difficult to interpret, though some might provoke more of a critical response than others. The Redundancy principle claims that hearing information and seeing it at the same time increases cognitive load. It would be interesting to find out to what extent (i.e. is it significant?) and how widespread this is (i.e. in what % of the population is this the case?). The Modality principle claims that hearing information is more beneficial than reading it, though surely individual differences in learning style, personal preferences, hearing ability and level of listening skill may well mean that some people  actually find reading to be more beneficial.


    Which ONE principle do you think might not work so well with 2nd language learners?

    Arguably, the Modality principle would seem to be less applicable to non-native speakers, as their ability to comprehend spoken language is often likely to be lower than their ability to understand written text. Clearly this would be influenced by a number of variables related to the speakers pronunciation, such as accent, speech rate, volume etc.