Robert Jackson

      Which of the six principles was most difficult to interpret? And why?

      I agree with Brenda that it is not that the concepts are necessarily difficult to interpret but rather the way they are explained, particularly the Contiguity Principle, which in the end seems to mean ‘put a heading (assertion) and put the text/image that relates to the heading (evidence) immediately below it’. This would be better explained by a slide illustrating the concept ))) I am also struggling to visualise an example of ‘signalling’

      Which one principle might not work so well with L2 learners?

      I agree with Rob A and Brenda that the Modality Principle is potentially challenging for L2 learners in respect of the comment in the article about hearing rather than seeing text.

      As regards the other assertion relating to the modality principle that, ‘images and graphics are beneficial to learning’, it is quite difficult to see how some language concepts can be represented pictorially. I agree that associating language with an image can aid retention and is quite easy to do e.g. for teaching idioms. The same is true of e.g. representing  the organisational features of an academic essay introduction with a funnel image, to give another example. However, it is difficult to see how some concepts can be represented with images, graphics, etc. Grammar ‘images’ would probably have to be arrows and highlighting and so on but in any case, still pretty much text heavy? If grammar could be represented with minimal words, I would be all for it, as I switch off whenever I read a grammar explanation in any language!