Tania Pacheco

      Hi everyone,

      I have answered the two questions from the previous sub-unit as well. Sorry for the long answers.

      1. What are the six multimedia principles discussed in the article? Which of them would you say you were already familiar with from your own experience or knowledge?

      1.     The multimedia or multiple representation principle: I am very familiar with this principle. In languages, for example, it is used when vocabulary is presented using a visual aid while the teacher or a recorded voice shows how to pronounce the words.

      2.     The contiguity principle: Association is key for learning languages. Vocabulary is learnt by topics. The big picture: Recycling information and recalling it will help to build up bridges between the old information and the new one. However, I am not sure whether this refer to my reflection. It might be also that the slides should have a coherent development, I was taught that I should present information in a scaffolding way, from word to word and then building up to sentences, then a text.

      3.     Redundancy principle: I suppose this refers when presenting the information and this is repetitive. Recalling previous information tend to support learners who needed reinforcement; maybe because they have missed a lesson or they were ill, so in practice this helps to cover any gaps, however I am not sure if my reflection explains the principle, or I misunderstood it.

      4.     The modality principle: is verbal repetition when retrieving information more effective than visual information?

      5.     Coherence principle: Yes, I agree; overwhelming the learner with unnecessary information is counterproductive.

      6.     Signalling principle:  A clear structure of progress in the learning is recommended. Yes, I do it a lot. I’ve worked in secondary schools and just pointing my finger to the screen and dancing to grab their attention was not enough, I needed to signpost everything with funny colours. I am still doing it when teaching adults. Whether I am doing it right, I will know that with this course very soon 😊.

      2. The article is (presumably) dealing with L1 speaking students. Do you think there would need to be any changes to the presentation design if they were L2 speaking students?

      I did not know the article was for L1 speaking students, the one that it was uploaded, and I have read, was about the study of the “Main components of MRI”. Have I missed the bit about speaking practise?

      The article quotes: “In this paper, we draw heavily on multimedia learning theory to articulate flaws in common features of the slides typically used by presenters in engineering.”

      For me, the beginning was very easy to understand, and I made some notes, that I would like to share with you because I was very keen then my brain had a blockage because by the middle of the reading, I was completely lost. It would have been easier to have a paper related with a study in languages, maybe?

      3. Which of the six principles reviewed above do you find the most difficult to interpret? And why?

      –          For me was No.4, the Modality principle: hearing verbal information is more beneficial than seeing the same information presented in text form on the screen.

      –          Does this mean that when a person has a slide and read it? I guess, it is not beneficial because the audience can read it by themselves at their own pace, so having an image and the presenter explaining it, is much better. I am not sure how this should look like in languages; for example, I am teaching the present tense with regular verbs in Spanish. I tend to present the conjugated table and I go through it, then I talk about how the endings change in Spanish. Another way, I do it is presenting one by one which takes a while though.

      4. Which ONE principle do you think might not work so well with 2nd language learners?

      Redundancy principle: in languages and talking by experience repetition, repetition, repetition and repetition is the key. I was taught that vocabulary has to be repeated at least 7 times in different ways so learners can remember the words by the end of the lesson.  I have also noticed that retrieving and recalling information is very beneficial to move the language from working memory to long term memory. Am I making this up? I am not sure, I hope not!



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