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    • #30839
      Juliet Parfitt

          How many of the principles in the article do you think were demonstrated by the video review activity? For example, I think it meets principle 9 (meeting material multiple times in different ways). We’ve certainly met the material in different format (reading/slides/live sessions) and this is now adding video to the mix. Which other ones do you think it meets?

          Also, did any other of the principles strike you as particularly noteworthy or surprising based on your experiences?

        • #31443
          Brenda Allen

              I agree that it meets Principle 9 and also Principle 8 re Cognitive Load. Otherwise, I was impressed by the number of new considerations being introduced and the level of detail now being presented along with interesting biological research. On a first reading, the last one, number 25, was the one that struck me most – that students learn more effectively from printed text than from e-textbooks and websites. I have always been quite certain that this holds true for myself but am aware that it might be less true for more of the ‘digital native’ generation – though I have had had doubts about this too. Even though I have bowed to the online mode and rarely even do personal reading offscreen any more, I am always conscious that this is a very different style of reading and one that appears inferior in many respects – one of the most relevant being in the marking of complex assignments and written exam papers purely onscreen and with technological aid – eg Blackboard. I have also anecdotally observed this in students and others – so it is salutary, if not really a revelation, to have the research confirmed and I would be fascinated to read more on this. It would seem to have huge implications, and yet the research is hardly new…

            • #31557
              Paul Middlemas

                  From the video, these are some of the principles I picked up on being used. Some (or most) of the principles seem to be connected or closely linked so I grouped them together.

                  2 – engaging with the activity (through comprehension qs, drag and drop…)

                  5 – low stress, supportive – scores aren’t recorded, no/little consequence

                  6 – humanised

                  7 – elaborative rehearsal; linking use of new terms to teaching terminology already familiar with i.e. scaffolding learning…

                  9 – reviewing material/principles several times (a review video)

                  14 – intervallic – looping back to unit 1, repeated information… and 15 – occasionally reviewing previous information… 18. – repeated testing

                  17. tested, through activities – ‘more effortful cognitive processing’ 19. having to produce answers (writing in the words in the last activity, rather than e.g. a matching activity where you have all the info on the screen. 23. these activities also allow you to go back and repeat/correct your answer and 24. getting immediate feedback…




                • #31704
                  Sue Everest

                      The principles I recognized from the article, which could be seen in the video were:

                      1) The steps of learning happened in the same order as the tasks that were to be completed.

                      2) Students learn better when engaged with the task- the tasks in the video were engaging.

                      3) Learn through practice.

                      5) Students learn best in a safe environment- we could watch the video and do the tasks in our own time, which meant less stress.

                      6) Video was personalised, because we could see David, which holds attention.

                      8) minimize cognitive load- the video was ‘chunked’ to make learning easier or more accessible. f) use of audio i) conversational style.

                      9) Receive learning multiple times- video was a recap of previous 3 units.

                      14) Learning reviewed at intervals. Similar to 9) as recap.

                      17) Students learn better when test themselves. The activities in the video worked well as we were in control of them. We could just look at the answers or repeat again to all correct. This alleviates stress.

                      Most noteworthy:

                      19) Produce rather than recognize answers. This feels like deeper learning. Out of the 3 tasks I found the last one, where you had to produce your own answers the most difficult. It made me think of my students in listening tests, who can be very good at gap fill questions but less good at producing answers showing deeper comprehension. With myself, I wondered whether I’d come to the end of my concentration span or was I facing more ‘new’ words and concepts or had I been trying to skim the task too much? Interesting. I did the task again.

                    • #32089
                      Zsofia Tarjani

                          I agree with @azurial’s @paul-m’s  @sue’s  long lists above so I’ve gone back to the principles you haven’t mentioned and tried to find them demonstrated in the video.

                          4, and 10, – David referred back to the units in order, in an organised way, showing the big picture in a way- building up on what we already know and what we should remember

                          13, David thanked us for working hard..perhaps evoking emotional response by appreciating our hard work?!




                        • #32391
                          Naomi Rabin

                              Definitely agree with the above answers, and there were some above that I hadn’t picked up on, so thanks all!

                              I thought that principle 25 was interesting – printing text for reading. I wonder whether I would take their claim that reading from a website leads to lower comprehension than from a book with a pinch of salt…..

                              • #32610
                                Brenda Allen

                                    I guess it depends on the kind of reading you set out to do? Online reading can be so much more efficient for tasks such as identifying key topic areas and for scrolling for specific info etc. The author did give a list of sources, but more up to date research would be interesting too…

                                • #32487
                                  Georgina Lloyd

                                      Hi all,

                                      I thought I had posted this earlier in the week – but it must not have sent so :scratch: ..the activities I wrote about, all have been picked up on in previous threads, but I’ll leave them here anyway..

                                      3. The HP5 activities with the video allow for targeted practice, with feedback, and the opportunity to do it again.

                                      4. The video is ‘new material’ but is summarising/reviewing learning from the previous units.

                                      13. Emotional engagement – this is interesting and probably one of the harder ones to do on online courses. I think seeing David’s face in the video stimulates emotional engagement, as do the live sessions on the course.

                                      25. Mmm… better start printing out those articles! I agree with @azurial and @naomi. I think how we read electronically is also changing all the time and hugely varied (backlit, not, images, scrolling, page turning etc etc) – it must be hard to make firm conclusions. On my masters though, with the articles I really needed/wanted to understand and use in my own research, I would print them out.

                                      Another observation was the feeling of complete cognitive overload whilst I was reading through that list! It was so dense and packed with so much knowledge and research on how we learn… my head started to hurt at around 15… :wacko:

                                      • #32609
                                        Brenda Allen

                                            So totally agree on that list! It overloaded my cognition so much, I think I may have lost the focus of the activity. Although you could argue that all the points on the list had validity, they could have been presented so much more meaningfully – both visually and by judicious merging and pruning. As earlier raised by Aaron, this kind of unmediated stream of consciousness is, unfortunately, an only too common feature of ‘Academic Writing’. Our poor students…

                                        • #32649
                                          Robert Anderson

                                              I managed to pick out the following, which mostly agree with the ideas already posted.

                                              2. Engaging, interactive activities (not just passive material)

                                              3. Targeted feedback on quiz questions (improvement directed through ‘retry’ function)

                                              5. Safe, supportive, welcoming environment (warm welcome, positive/motivating message)

                                              6. Attention attracted and held by tutors face on screen and by variety of activities

                                              8. Cognitive load minimised (segmentation, scaffolding, audio narration, visible speaker with conversational style)

                                              9. Content covered in multiple ways (hearing  it, reading it, writing it)

                                              14. Spaced practice (opportunity to review and practice previously taught  content)

                                              15. Interleaved practice (review of previous content at same time as new content is being covered).

                                              17. The testing effect (quizzes & practice activities to test understanding)

                                              19. Generation effect (task requiring free recall)

                                              23. Error correction (learners given the opportunity to see mistakes and try again)

                                              24. Prompt feedback on errors (immediate answers from interactive tasks)

                                            • #34324
                                              Robert Jackson


                                                  I have read all the posts with interest, as they say, and nothing to add this late in the day. The article seems like a condensed teaching guide with all the things I should do but don’t )

                                                  I did underline two phrases: “The human mind processes, stores, and retrieves visuals more easily and with less effort than it does text” (p10). I guess we have been acknowledging that fact on the course, but I didn’t really get that message until now. Also, debunks the idea of learner styles a bit I guess.

                                                  Also, “students learn and retain less when they read an e-textbook than a print textbook.” The claim is based on research (Baron, 2015; Daniel & Willingham, 2012; Daniel & Woody, 2013; Kolowich, 2014; Wästlund et al., 2005), which doesn’t necessarily mean it is right of course )))  I wonder if it is a generational thing? I don’t like reading online but maybe digital natives (millennials and GenZ ) are better adapted to it? Also maybe the editing tools have now improved and readers can engage more actively with the text now than was the case when Kolowich (2014) was published?

                                                  • #34389
                                                    Brenda Allen

                                                        On the face of it, so-called digital natives, many never having known anything else, often appear to have adapted exclusively to online reading. They have certainly grown up to possess some highly enhanced scanning abilities.  Having myself immigrated back in the mists of time, I (like plenty of us who had no screen technology in our childhoods, as many round the globe still do not) have also long adapted to an everyday variety of on screen reading.  Other varieties – such as reading and ENJOYING a novel, dissecting a long academic tract or getting a rapid overview on a vast hardback volume  – not so much!  (Though, admittedly, I could try harder and may well do so some day.  Could this be a case of Needs Must When the Devil Drives?)  No matter how digitally acculturated we might all have become, I feel there is still a sense of a lot being lost along the way.  Indeed, I have recently been observing a trend amongst young UK undergraduates who seem to have reverted – if not quite to quill pen and parchment – to notebook and fountain pen and to reading huge, learned tomes in their entirety.  Maybe it is that retro appeal? Or a nod to Tactility – a “Learning Style”, like the Visual style mentioned, maybe more universal than once acknowledged? Or maybe this speaks to some deeper processing issues? Thanks for the insight into the citations @robj, and your wry remarks made me chuckle.  As previously commented, it would be revealing to delve into more recent research. It is surely of great relevance as to how we approach the design of online reading materials and how they can best be exploited…

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