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    • #22981
      David Read
      Keymaster
        @david

        In the article, Clark and Mayer discusses three types of processing: extraneous processing, essential processing and generative processing. Of the three the first – extraneous processing – is probably the easiest to understand. The other two take a bit more work. If necessary, read through the section of the article where they are mentioned (pages 37-40) and then respond to the questions below:

        Essential processing

        Clark and Mayer talk about this as the ability to process the ‘inherent complexity of the material’. For students on a pre-sessional, which one of these topic areas do you think would require the most processing from students and why: learning the passive voice, learning how to paraphrase, learning the Harvard referencing system?

        Generative processing

        The authors identify this as the ability of the learner to organise and integrate the content/material into knowledge store. Over the last few weeks you’ve seen plenty of examples of digital content – including those made by yourself. What kinds of tasks or activities do you think might help students to organise and integrate content more effectively?

         

      • #23247
        Paula Villegas Verdu
        Participant
          @paula_villegas

          So, I loved this reading so much! :heart:

          Now, the serious questions

          • Essential processing. For students on a pre-sessional, which one of these topic areas do you think would require the most processing from students and why: learning the passive voice, learning how to paraphrase, learning the Harvard referencing system?
            • Learn how to paraphrase as it involves different techniques (like using the passive or being able to use in-text citations correctly).
          • Generative processing.  What kinds of tasks or activities do you think might help students to organise and integrate content more effectively?
            • I guess those tasks that required the students to actively engage in creating with whichever point they are being taught? so maybe drag and drop could be used to foster generative processing when they are deciding if/when to use the passive?
        • #23251
          David Lincoln
          Participant
            @david-l

            I would have to agree with Paula. Paraphrasing requires a lot mental processing due to the different techniques involved. For the second question I would suggest ‘match’ up activities, group sorts, rank order or drag a drop where the learner  has :yahoo: to engage with , and organise the integrated materials.    :yahoo:

          • #23288
            sue robbins
            Participant
              @suerobbins

              Essential processing – which one of these topic areas do you think would require the most processing from students and why: learning the passive voice, learning how to paraphrase, learning the Harvard referencing system?

              Although it can seem relatively straightforward to teach students how to manipulate the form of a discrete grammatical item such as the passive voice, the essential processing required may depend on a learner’s first language and how easy it is to relate to the function of the item. The abstraction of removing the agent from a sentence may be quite hard to grasp for some. It may also add a layer of ‘extraneous’ processing in some types of writing where learners are trying to manage complex ideas and structures which may be made easier by relying on more straightforward means of expression.

              Paraphrasing is a complex skill that requires students to read/listen and understand at a deep level in order to translate the author’s argument/stance/level of certainty into their own words. If a learner understands the text only at sentence level they will not be able to access these elements of the author’s intent, meaning their initial reading may require too much essential processing before the task of paraphrasing can begin.

              When it comes to learning the Harvard referencing system it depends whether the focus is on the mechanics of building a reference, or whether the focus is on understanding what referencing is for, why it matters and what constitutes sound academic practice. Teaching the mechanics is based on perform goals – procedural goals designed to promote near transfer and teach step-by-step tasks which are performed more or less the same way each time – whereas the complexity of teaching referencing is far greater.

              Generative processing – What kinds of tasks or activities do you think might help students to organise and integrate content more effectively?

              Learners have their own approaches to creating a ‘mental representation of the material’ and consciously using their brains to organise information and material into a coherent structure. So I try to avoid being prescriptive in how they construct and demonstrate their understanding by not imposing the methods and techniques I have developed for myself, and which work for me. The fact that I find it useful to see information represented in a table (tabular notes) and that I can’t make head or tail of line diagrams and branching notes, for example, doesn’t mean others do/don’t. So I might offer students 2 or 3 techniques for demonstrating understanding of a given point and ask them to select one that makes sense to them. For a new chunk of information students could be asked to show their understanding in a variety of ways and then share their (e.g.) graphic, notes (sketch notes, Cornell notes, graphic representation), word cloud, written summary, etc. with another student and talk them through it. This rehearsal opportunity can help them consolidate the new information, allows them to hear their own thoughts out loud, encourages dialogue about the way the new information is being processed and discourages the storing of faulty information. It also helps learners to hear multiple representations of the same piece of information and allows me to see/hear if the new knowledge is accessible to each student, and therefore how likely it is that they can integrate it with what they already know. A further step designed to focus on where the new information might map onto old is also useful, and asking learners to summarise the new information and make a link to an item previously learned can help. I’m not sure yet how to design these types of open-ended activities online, and hope to get a better sense of this as the course progresses. There seems to be a tension between the need to scaffold online tasks quite carefully and offer automated feedback based on a ‘right’ answer, and this need to encourage multiple, idiosyncratic expressions of meaning.

            • #23303
              Julie Ibdali
              Participant
                @julie

                Essential processing

                Clark and Mayer talk about this as the ability to process the ‘inherent complexity of the material’. For students on a pre-sessional, which one of these topic areas do you think would require the most processing from students and why: learning the passive voice, learning how to paraphrase, learning the Harvard referencing system?

                I agree with Sue in respect of all her in-depth points about which of above requires the most processing.  I also think we do have to think about the characteristics of individual learners (I’m thinking of my less confident self here and the anxiety this sometimes causes including this course at times), their motivation and learning backgrounds too. We have to remember that one size does not fit all

                Generative processing

                The authors identify this as the ability of the learner to organise and integrate the content/material into knowledge store. Over the last few weeks you’ve seen plenty of examples of digital content – including those made by yourself. What kinds of tasks or activities do you think might help students to organise and integrate content more effectively?

                I think any activity that is interactive/engaging would help integrate content more effectively, some examples could be: gap fills, drag and drop, embedded tasks/links, true/false. Personally I would say any task where we hand over to  students, but I could be totally wrong!!

                 

                 

              • #23321
                Allison Dresner
                Participant
                  @spottypoppy

                  Essential processing

                  I agree with the others that paraphrasing is the most complex and involves processing of elements such as sentence and clause construction, lexical awareness and previous knowledge of synonyms, changing grammatical structures active to passive  and reordering information using appropriate transition signals – so here chunking is absolutely required .

                  Generative Processing – to me this seems inherently linked to engagement and motivation – if a task or learning object is visually appealing without being too overloaded with unrelated graphics, is staged well and requires the learner to be active in their own knowledge construction by undertaking a task of some sort – this could be as mentioned eralier ‘drag and drop’ matching activities etc or it could be as simple as trying out an online Harvard referencing tool or vocabulary tool themselves.

                  Allison

                   

                   

                   

                • #23339
                  Jemima Perry
                  Participant
                    @jemima

                    Essential processing – I think learning how to paraphrase requires the most processing as it involves being able to do lots of different things at the same time and you have to actually do it in your head. The Harvard Referencing system also involves lots of separate bits but it follows rules which can be remembered / checked and are always the same. Paraphrasing involves using all your understanding of the language, as well as understanding the material you are paraphrasing.

                    Generative processing – my understanding of this is that it corresponds to when ask learners to actually do something (rather than just reading / listening). Is that right? So perhaps the wordwall activities where we were building passive sentences ourselves would be an example of this?

                  • #23368
                    David Read
                    Keymaster
                      @david

                      @paula_villegas @david-l @suerobbins @julie @spottypoppy @jemima thanks to all of you for your initial thoughts on this. You are all definitely heading in the right direction when thinking about generative processing, and the activities you mention can all contribute to helping students organise and integrate their knowledge of the content.


                      @suerobbins
                      you make the good point that it’s difficult to impose certain ways of learning on students, and giving them choices or more open-ended tasks would be more beneficial. The difficult there of course is that developing these kinds of tasks asynchronously is a lot more difficult and giving them choice inevitably means creating more activities. I think we can give them some choices within online content (choose whether to do this passive or past tense activity for example) but there will be a limit.

                      In some ways we should see this as a positive as it means that maybe there is still a place for a teacher to provide the missing open-ended tasks for them and to provide the more detailed feedback they need. And indeed this is the promise of the flipped classroom, so that the lower level input is handled asynchronously but the more complex tasks are handled in the classroom (whether face to face or online).

                      • #23370
                        sue robbins
                        Participant
                          @suerobbins

                          Thanks for your reply @david I think this is the thing that’s occupying my thoughts at the moment. I’m trying to get a better understanding of what online learning can best be used for (as well as how) and how to avoid resorting to a prescriptive approach.

                      • #23444
                        Aline André
                        Participant
                          @aline

                          Essential processing: This is what I have observed with my pre-sessional students from the most difficult to least: Paraphrasing> Harvard referencing style> passive voice.
                          As Paula has said paraphrasing requires a combination of different skills which can be challenging for some students. Regarding referencing, it might be the first time students are learning/using references and it takes a few lessons/feedback for them to cite sources appropriately, and understand the reasons for doing it. Students usually seem confident about the passive voice that doesn’t necessarily mean they can use it efficiently.

                          Generative processing: I agree with Sue that learners have their own approach to consolidate their knowledge. I think the activities on the Wordwall website could help students at a very basic/elementary level. Maybe, It would be necessary more complex activities to help students store information in their long-term memory.

                        • #23467
                          Bernadette Kelly
                          Participant
                            @berniek

                            Essential Processing – I agree with the view that paraphrasing is probably the most ‘heavy’ essential processing load because it seems obvious that it has the most inherent complexity.  But it depends on what is meant by, for example, ‘learning the passive voice’.  Learning how to form a grammatically correct sentence using passive voice is very straightforward.  Learning when, and why, we should (or should not) use the passive voice is a much more complex ‘learning’ challenge.

                            Generative Processing – I think the more open-ended the task, the more generative processing it requires.  We are very much back to the ‘flipped learning’ model here I think, where the students have to apply or use whatever we are teaching them.

                          • #23498
                            Rachel Beresford
                            Participant
                              @rachel-beresford

                              Essential processing

                              For students on a pre-sessional, which one of these topic areas do you think would require the most processing from students and why: learning the passive voice, learning how to paraphrase, learning the Harvard referencing system?

                              I think that paraphrasing would require the most processing from students, as there are so many different skills and techniques involved in successful paraphrasing, such as understanding the original text, selecting suitable synonyms, making changes to word class and changing from active to passive voice.

                              Generative processing

                              What kinds of tasks or activities do you think might help students to organise and integrate content more effectively?

                              I agree with many of the ideas posted above, such as interactive activities where students have to complete a task rather than just read through information, and activities which are visually engaging. It could also be important that is an appropriate level for the learner.  If a task appears to easy or too challenging, students may  fail to engage with the content sufficiently. Tasks that are relevant to the learner’s individual situation or learning context could also help them to organise and integrate content more effectively, as they will be more engaging and motivating for learners. I think that hands on tasks or tasks which simulate real life situations are also more likely to help students to integrate content. For example, we all learned more about creating activities on Wordwall by actually doing it than we would have done if we had only watched the videos and completed a comprehension task about them.

                               

                               

                            • #23506
                              Caitlin Coyle
                              Participant
                                @caitlin

                                Essential processing: For students on a pre-sessional, which one of these topic areas do you think would require the most processing from students and why: learning the passive voice, learning how to paraphrase, learning the Harvard referencing system?

                                I’m bit late to the party, but I think like many other people have mentioned paraphrasing quite often incorporates the other two skills, as well as other skills hence I think it requires the most processing.

                                Generative processing: The authors identify this as the ability of the learner to organise and integrate the content/material into knowledge store. Over the last few weeks you’ve seen plenty of examples of digital content – including those made by yourself. What kinds of tasks or activities do you think might help students to organise and integrate content more effectively?

                                Again like the others said I think our activities on Wordwall- reforming jumbled sentences, drag and drop and matching type activities would help students. I am also doing some research on colour-coding at the moments and noticed the use of colour was also mentioned in the article hence I think creating tasks with tools which trigger memory aids are also helpful.

                              • #24205
                                PANAGIOTA TZANNI
                                Participant
                                  @ptzanni

                                  Essential processing

                                  In my opinion, writing skills require the most processing on behalf of the learners. How to structure an essay in a completely different way from what they are used to now is going to take a few weeks for them. Writing introductions, thesis statements, and being vocal about their arguments is a new skill set for them to master.

                                  Generative processing

                                  Students need to be able to apply the new knowledge directly into practice. Reflecting via Padlet for example or interacting with new information via games, such as Wordwall could also be helpful.

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