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Extend: Reflection and further reading

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To say something about the topic

Approx. ?? minutes

Research and share

TASK: Choose an area that you are particularly interested in and do some more research. Then reflect on your research findings and consider the following questions. Below you’ll find all of the references and extra resources shared throughout the Extend section. We have included them all on this page for your convenience. 

  • What was the most interesting thing you learned? 
  • What surprised you the most? 
  • What ideas can you use for your own development?

Optionally, share your findings in the forum below. Post a summary of your findings in the forum at the bottom of this page. Read other people’s contributions. What do you learn? Does anything surprise you?


Teaching journals

Deckert, A.J. (1988). Keeping a Teacher’s Writing Journal. The English Journal 77/2, pp. 48-50.  

British Council (nd). Reflective Teaching: Exploring our own classroom practice. 

Farrell, T.S., 1998. ESL/EFL teacher development through journal writing. RELC Journal, 29(1), pp.92-109.

Action research

Burns, Anne. (2009) Doing Action Research in English: A Guide for Practitioners. London: Routledge. Chapter 1. [Available online through the University of Sheffield library]

Episode 18: Action Researchhttps://tdsig.org/developod-tdsigs-podcast/

Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. 4th edition. Pearson: Longman. Chapter 24: What teachers do next. 

Scrivener, J. (2011). Learning Teaching. 3rd edition. Macmillan Books for Teachers. Chapter 16: Next Steps.

Team teaching

British Council (n.d). Team Teaching. 

Stateuniversity.com (2023). Team Teaching: Advantages, Disadvantages


British Council (n.d): Introduction to supporting and mentoring teachers. Available at: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/introduction-supporting-and-mentoring-teachers. Inside that link the following documents will be useful: 

British Council (n.d). What is it like to be a mentor?  → If you are interested in hearing more about people who have become mentors you can watch videos in which they tell their journals on this website. 

British Council (n.d). Teaching English podcast: How can peer-led training and mentoring support teachers’ development? 

Gakonga, J. (2022). Things I learnt during seven years of a (part-time) PhD.  Available at ELT-Training.com https://www.elt-training.com/blog/seven-things-in-seven-years. (Accessed: 12 June 2023). → In this video, teacher trainer Dr. Jo Gakonga provides a good summary of her PhD thesis on tutor mentoring.


If you would like to know more about different types of observations (e.g. procedure, etiquette, templates), you can check the following links:  

Peer and formal observations

If you do not have the opportunity to observe colleagues in your teaching context, you can also watch plenty of lessons online in Sandy Millin’s blog.


Some Observations on Engaging in Self-Observation  

Self-observation of online teaching – ELT Planning

Video-Based Self-Observation as a Component of Developmental Teacher Evaluation 

Further reading on teaching observations

Etpedia Teacher Training: 500 ideas for teacher training in English language teaching (2020) by Beth Melia-Leigh and Nicholas Northall (Pavilion ELT) 

Units 25 and 26.  You can a free sample of Unit 30 here: https://www.myetpedia.com/media/37129/etpedia_teacher_training_unit_30_10_benefits_of_peer_observation.pdf   

A Practical Introduction to Teaching Training in ELT (2015) by John Hughes (Pavilion)

Chapter 4 (Observing lessons) focuses on the reasons for observing lessons, the trainer observing, trainees and teachers observing and types of observation forms. 

ELT Lesson Observation and Feedback (2008) by Jeanette Barsdell (Jeanette Barsdell)

This book contains practical advice about observations. 

Teaching Practice (1995) by Roger Gower, Diane Phillips and Steve Walters (Macmillan Education)

Chapter 1 and Chapter 9 contain information about observations.

Teacher Evaluation in Second Language Education (2014) edited by Amanda Howard and Helen Donaghue (Bloomsbury)

Research Papers

If you are interested in research, the following might be useful: 

Peer observation: A key factor to improve Iranian EFL teachers’ professional development

An Investigation into the Effect of Classroom Observation on Teaching Methodology

Synchronous computer-mediated communication as a peer observation tool

The construction and negotiation of identity and face in post observation feedback  

Other iCERT modules – Module 2 on Teaching and Learning contains useful information and activities on conducting observations.

Communities of Practice

Communities of Practice

Effective communities of practice – A webinar to learn more about what makes a successful community of practice.

Teacher Activity Groups: an effective model for professional development? – Here you can watch a recording of this webinar which took place on 1 December 2020 about the effectiveness of Teacher Activity Groups. Many of the ideas in this section have been adapted from this webinar.

Teacher professional development through WhatsApp-based Communities of Practice in challenging contexts – Here you can watch a recording of this webinar which took place on 25 November 2020 about using WhatsApp for professional development in challenging contexts.

Teacher associations

Another great way of continuing developing is by joining a professional teacher association. These associations may be local, regional, national or international and are a great way of keeping up to date with the latest developments in the ELT world and be in touch with colleagues with similar concerns. 

Some famous teacher associations

International associations: 

IATEFL (based in the UK) – https://www.iatefl.org/

TESOL (based in the US) – https://www.tesol.org/

Country based teacher associations

You can find a lot about them here: https://www.tirfonline.org/teachers-associations/ or you can use your social media or search engine to find the teacher association that is closest to you.