We’ll now have a look at how the answers to these questions will help us plan lessons that are better suited to our learners.

Manuel Flores, Course tutor

On the final slide, you will have the option to print/save your answers. If it does not fit on the page, make sure your paper is set to landscape and look for an option in your print settings to fit the document to the page. 

Study Note

At the beginning of some units, we will ask you to reflect on your initial ideas before giving you further explanations. Thinking about a topic, writing down initial ideas and then revisiting your initial ideas at the end of the unit is a very good way of engaging with the concepts and consolidating your understanding. We recommend that you keep a note of your reflections in a personal notebook.

What's happening in this topic?

Review the unit

Time to complete: approximately 5 mins

1. How would you define genre?
2. Thinking about your own teaching, what genres do you teach?
What knowledge do your learners need to be able to identify a specific genre?
4. How do you teach your learners this?
Previous
Next

A definition of genre:

Genre:

A genre comprises a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes. These purposes are recognised by the expert members of the parent discourse community and thereby constitute the rationale for the genre. This rationale shapes the schematic structure of the genre and influences and constraints choice of content and style … In addition to purpose, exemplars of a genre exhibit various patterns of similarity in terms of structure, style, content and intended audience.

Text adapted from: Swales, J. (1990). Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge University Press: 58

Welcome to Unit 8

We hope you’ve been enjoying using Articulate Storyline over the last few weeks, it’s a complex tool but really worth diving into as it is capable of quite powerful and engaging interactions.

Unit 8 takes us in a slightly different direction looking at the use of video in online content. We know that video can be a great medium for learning, but creating the videos themselves and then making them interactive can be quite challenging. Hopefully this unit goes some way to making that process a little easier.  It is available from Monday 22nd November at  10.00 (UK time).

Welcome to unit 7

The last unit saw the introduction of authoring tools and many of you seem to take to Articulate Storyline very quickly. These are powerful tools indeed and with a bit of time, it’s amazing what can be produced.

Unit 7 will pick up where unit 6 left off and we’ll continue to develop our skills with Storyline, particularly in creating quizzes and interactive activities. It is available from Monday 15th November at  10.00 (UK time).

Learner characteristics & learner needs

Can you think of any other learner characteristics that teachers need to consider when thinking about their learners?

Further reading

Learner characteristics & learner needs

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"Everything we do in our teaching should be linked to our learner needs and characteristics. Thinking about this course, it is important for us to know your teaching experience, your expectations of the course and your reasons for doing the course. Your answers in the padlet task help us prepare a course that you are happy with. If, for example, you do this course to pass the exam but we don’t give you any practice tests, you probably won’t be very happy. In the same way, if you only have 3 hours a week to dedicate to this course but we ask you to work 12 hours a week, you will probably become frustrated and stop doing the course. For this reason, meeting our learners’ needs is key to maintaining motivation and ensuring they are successful learners.

In order to identify our learners’ needs we first need to know who our learners are."

Caroline Grainger, Course tutor

Test
Rationale

A course director is expecting an intake of 100 students. They will all sit a test on the first morning of the course.

To place students in the right classes according to level.

Clicking on the button below will start the activity in a new window. When you've finished the activity, clicking on the X in the top right-hand corner will bring you back to this screen. 

Example

organise the whiteboard well to appeal to visual learners
To appeal to auditory learners, I can…

d) In my lessons, we would listen to a recording or the teacher, repeat the phrases several times until we remembered them perfectly and then used them in simple exercises.

What's happening in this unit?

"We hope you are now more familiar with the TKT website and ready to get started with the content. In this unit, we will start thinking a little bit in more detail about how our learners influence what we teach and how we teach it. We hope you’ll enjoy this first topic!"

Manuel Flores, Course tutor

Information about Unit 1

Learner characteristics & learner needs

By the end of this unit you will have

  • reflected on and identified how learner characteristics affect learning and teaching
  • reflected on and identified learner needs and how to meet those needs
  • practised TKT tasks based on learner characteristics and needs

Module 1, part 2: Background to language teaching and learning (learner characteristics & learner needs)

You need to know about the range of different factors that can affect how learners learn. You also need to be able to identify examples of these factors and to relate them to their implications for teachers and teaching.

In the exam, you may be asked to identify the learner characteristics based on a description of the learner, match learner characteristics with classroom activities or identify the type and causes of learner needs, for example.

Examples of learning strategies

  • Repeating new words in your head until you remember them
  • Experimenting / taking risks by using just-learnt language in conversations
  • Asking the teacher or others to give you feedback on your language use
  • Deciding to use the foreign language as much as possible, e.g. by talking to tourists
  • Recording yourself speaking, then judging and correcting your pronunciation
  • Asking a speaker to repeat what he/she has said
  • Deciding what area of vocabulary you need to learn and then learning it
  • Thinking about how to memorise (remember) all the new words you meet in each lesson
  • Deciding to write each new vocabulary item on a separate card and display it on your fridge
  • Paraphrasing or trying to say the same thing with different words

The following extra reading suggestions are always available via the quick link on the homepage. 

Further reading

Spratt, M., Pulverness, A., and Williams, M. (2011) The TKT Teaching Knowledge Test Course, Modules 1,2 and 3 (Cambridge: C.U.P.) 

  • Unit 2 (Lexis)
  • Unit 3 (Phonology)
  • Unit 16 (Presentation techniques and introductory activities)

Useful links

To see an example of a vocabulary lesson from an elementary coursebook, with annotations from your tutors, have a click here.

An analysis of the structure of the phonemic chart by Adrian Underhill can be found on his website. His Pronunciation Blog is also well worth a read if you’re interested in this topic.

You can familiarise yourself with the different sounds in British English on the BBC Learning English Pronunciation page.

There are many good phonemic chart apps available for smartphones, such as this one from Macmillan Publishing.

We’ll now have a look at how the answers to these questions will help us plan lessons that are better suited to our learners.

Manuel Flores, Course tutor

In this task you will get to know more about reading, posting and responding to posts in our forums. All of the units in this course have at least one forum task which we expect you to complete. Although completing the forum tasks is not essential, we have found that those who engage most with the tasks and the course, get a lot more from it.

“In order to engage successfully with pronunciation, [students need]…the confidence that comes from direct and conscious physical experience of experimenting with the muscles and breath energy in our own vocal tract.”

Underhill, A. (2005) Sound Foundations, Macmillan

Add a video demonstrating how to use the site

If you are currently i

Time to get started. The first thing to do is to upload a picture of yourself. This will lend a human face to your profile.

The video below explains how to do this.

Think first
Suggested answer
What do you think are the benefits of having teaching practice on a teacher training course?
  • Teaching practice allows trainee teachers to put theories about teaching into practice.
  • Teaching practice also allows trainee teachers to try out practical procedures, techniques and activities with learners.  
  • Trainee teachers have the opportunity to experience what teachers do; i.e. teach!
  • Taking part in teaching practice on a course allows trainee teachers to try new techniques in a supportive environment. 
  • Teaching practice allows teachers to practise teaching.
  • It is an opportunity to make mistakes now. 
  • Teachers can reflect on the experience.
  • On some courses, teachers get feedback on their teaching from a peer or more experienced teacher.
  • New teachers have the opportunity to teach real learners perhaps for the first time.
  • Teachers can get feedback from their learners. 
  • Experience of really teaching is beneficial for looking for a new job or a new position at a school.

Do you think teaching practice should be a part of all teacher training courses? Why or why not?

Do you agree or disagree with anything Josh said?
Do you agree or disagree with anything Josh said?

Topic Focus

UPDATE

UPDATE minutes

Task 1: fill the gaps

First listening

Listen to the interview and compare the contents of the session with your ideas from task 1. What similarities and/or differences are there?

Adding video to Padlet

Add a video demonstrating how to use the site

Brainstorm
Reflection

Take 2 minutes to brainstorm as many qualities of an effective English language teacher as you can think of. Write them down.

E.g. The ability to:

  • clarify language
  • give clear instructions
  • correct errors
  • build rapport
 

1. Which of the qualities you have listed do you see as your main strengths as a teacher? How can you use these as a trainer?

2. What do you consider as your main teaching weaknesses? How can you improve in these areas?

3. Can you think of any other teaching skills that you could use or build on as a trainer?

ADD A LINK HERE TO THE JAMBOARD

Sharing your images to Padlet.

Hey there, welcome to the Introductory Unit for Instructional Design for Language Teachers! This is designed to give you a welcome to the course and to learn a bit more about the other participants and what you are going to be doing. You can read the more detailed objectives below and then get started by clicking on the first topic - Welcome to the course - at the bottom. 

David Read

Course Tutor

Aims of the unit:

Task 1: fill the gaps

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Useful links

Reflecting on the course

What’s the value of having review sections in an online course? Do you think they are useful? 

Teacher Training and Education Special Interest Group
This is a SIG (also known as TTEdSIG) for teacher trainers and educators, run by members of IATEFL.

Teacher Educator (TEIS) – TESOL International Association
This is an ‘Interest Section’ run by TESOL.org where you can engage and collaborate with other teacher educators.  

ELTED Journal
This  is an online open-access journal that aims to promote research findings and current thinking  for those involved in teacher education. 

English Teaching Professional and Modern English Teacher 
Both regularly include useful advice, activities and readable articles for teacher trainers and educators working in most contexts. Please note, you have to pay to access most of the content. 

The Teacher Trainer Journal
This is the foremost teacher training journal for those involved in TESOL teacher training. It is a valuable resource, including articles, letters and comments that are relevant for almost anyone involved in teaching, educating or mentoring teachers. Please note, that apart from a complimentary edition of the journal, access requires a paid subscription.

The British Council’s CPD for teacher trainers online resource is a mine of useful information for teacher trainers in almost every context. Cambridge English also has a Trainer Framework, which can help you identify where you are at present, as well as supporting your future development.

CELTATrainers.com 
This website is specifically aimed at CELTA trainers and includes (limited) job advertisements and (sometimes) information about conferences and events.  

Welcome to ELT-Training | Online support for CELTA and beyond | Jo Gakonga 
Although this is aimed at CELTA trainees and new teachers, the free resources here could also be used on any pre-service course, and even possibly in contexts with more experienced teachers. Note, access to some of the resources requires a payment. 

Teaching English resources and qualifications| Cambridge
Information about English-teaching awards offered by Cambridge Assessment English’s including CELTA and Delta.

Prepare for DELTA
This is useful if you are working on a Delta course. Here you can find a past paper and exam report for use when preparing candidates for Delta Module One. 

Teaching English – TESOL qualifications 
Qualifications for teachers offered by Trinity College London including their CertTESOL and DipTESOL. 

CertTESOL resources 
Useful resources if you are preparing candidates for Trinity’s CertTESOL teaching qualification. 

DipTESOL resources 
Further information about Trinity College London’s DipTESOL including a sample examination paper, syllabus summary and entry requirements.

CETA Symposium – The annual meeting of CELTA, DELTA, TKT, CELT-P and CELT-S trainers 
Information about the annual meeting of trainers involved in Cambridge Assessment English qualifications. Please note that a lot of the links do not work. 

Cambridge Assessment English: TKT How to prepare
If you are working with teachers preparing to take TKT, you may find useful preparation information here. 

British Council Teacher Educator Community 
This is a really useful resource which includes up-to-date forums, a plethora of webinars and several online short courses.

These are for courses for those who want to deliver courses such as CELTA online.

https://www.theconsultants-e.com/e-moderation/ 

IH Certificate in Online Tutoring | International House 

Teacher Training | ELTC | The University of Sheffield 
Here you can find further teacher training courses run at the English Language Teacher Centre.

Events | International House 
Here you will find information about online and in person events run by International House.

The following resources include practical ideas, tips and even, in some cases, photocopiable resources, which can be picked up and used quite easily. 

The CELTA Course (2007) by Scott Thornbury and Peter Watkins (Cambridge)

A Course in English Language Teaching (2012) by Penny Ur (Cambridge) 

The Developing Teacher: Practice activities for professional development (2017) by Duncan Foord (DELTA Teacher Development Series)

ELT Lesson Observation and Feedback Handbook (2018) by (Jeanette Barsdell)

ELT Playbook Teacher Training (2019) by Sandy Millin (Sandy Millin Publishing)

Etpedia Teacher Training: 500 ideas for teacher training in English language teaching (2020) by Beth Melia-Leigh and Nicholas Northall (Pavillion elt)

The Lazy Teacher Trainer’s Handbook (2017) by Magnus Coney (2017) (the round.com)

A Practical Introduction to Teaching Training in ELT (2015) by John Hughes (Pavilion) 

Tasks for Teacher Education (1998) by Rosie Tanner and Catherine Green (Longman) 

Teacher Training Essentials (2010) by Craig Thaine (Cambridge)

Teaching Practice (1995) by Roger Gower, Diane Phillips and Steve Walters (Macmillan)

Trinity CertTESOL Companion (2017) by Jason Anderson (Delta Publishing)

Ways of Working with Teachers (2005) by Tessa Woodward (Tessa Woodward Publications)

Advising and Supporting Teachers (2001) by Mick Randall and Barbara Thornton (CUP)

Language Teacher Education (1998) by Jon Roberts (Hodder Arnold Publishing)

The Routledge Handbook of English Language Teacher Education (2019) edited by Steve Walsh and Steve Mann (Routledge)

Second Language Teacher Education (2010) edited by Jack C. Richards and David Nunan (CUP)

Teacher Evaluation in Second Language Education (2014) edited by Amanda Howard and Helen Donaghue (Bloomsbury)

Training Foreign Language Teachers: A Reflective Approach (1991) by Michael J. Wallace (CUP)

Online Resources

Teacher Training and Education Special Interest Group
This is a SIG (also known as TTEdSIG) for teacher trainers and educators, run by members of IATEFL.

Teacher Educator (TEIS) – TESOL International Association
This is an ‘Interest Section’ run by TESOL.org where you can engage and collaborate with other teacher educators.  

ELTED Journal
This  is an online open-access journal that aims to promote research findings and current thinking  for those involved in teacher education. 

English Teaching Professional and Modern English Teacher 
Both regularly include useful advice, activities and readable articles for teacher trainers and educators working in most contexts. Please note, you have to pay to access most of the content. 

The Teacher Trainer Journal
This is the foremost teacher training journal for those involved in TESOL teacher training. It is a valuable resource, including articles, letters and comments that are relevant for almost anyone involved in teaching, educating or mentoring teachers. Please note, that apart from a complimentary edition of the journal, access requires a paid subscription.


CPD for trainers

The British Council’s CPD for teacher trainers online resource is a mine of useful information for teacher trainers in almost every context. Cambridge English also has a Trainer Framework, which can help you identify where you are at present, as well as supporting your future development.

CELTATrainers.com 
This website is specifically aimed at CELTA trainers and includes (limited) job advertisements and (sometimes) information about conferences and events.  

Welcome to ELT-Training | Online support for CELTA and beyond | Jo Gakonga 
Although this is aimed at CELTA trainees and new teachers, the free resources here could also be used on any pre-service course, and even possibly in contexts with more experienced teachers. Note, access to some of the resources requires a payment. 

Teaching English resources and qualifications| Cambridge
Information about English-teaching awards offered by Cambridge Assessment English’s including CELTA and Delta.

Prepare for DELTA
This is useful if you are working on a Delta course. Here you can find a past paper and exam report for use when preparing candidates for Delta Module One. 

Teaching English – TESOL qualifications 
Qualifications for teachers offered by Trinity College London including their CertTESOL and DipTESOL. 

CertTESOL resources 
Useful resources if you are preparing candidates for Trinity’s CertTESOL teaching qualification. 

DipTESOL resources 
Further information about Trinity College London’s DipTESOL including a sample examination paper, syllabus summary and entry requirements.

CETA Symposium – The annual meeting of CELTA, DELTA, TKT, CELT-P and CELT-S trainers 
Information about the annual meeting of trainers involved in Cambridge Assessment English qualifications. Please note that a lot of the links do not work. 

Cambridge Assessment English: TKT How to prepare
If you are working with teachers preparing to take TKT, you may find useful preparation information here. 

British Council Teacher Educator Community 
This is a really useful resource which includes up-to-date forums, a plethora of webinars and several online short courses.


E-moderation courses

These are for courses for those who want to deliver courses such as CELTA online.

https://www.theconsultants-e.com/e-moderation/ 

IH Certificate in Online Tutoring | International House 

Teacher Training | ELTC | The University of Sheffield 
Here you can find further teacher training courses run at the English Language Teacher Centre.

Events | International House 
Here you will find information about online and in person events run by International House.


Paper resources

The following resources include practical ideas, tips and even, in some cases, photocopiable resources, which can be picked up and used quite easily. 

The CELTA Course (2007) by Scott Thornbury and Peter Watkins (Cambridge)

A Course in English Language Teaching (2012) by Penny Ur (Cambridge) 

The Developing Teacher: Practice activities for professional development (2017) by Duncan Foord (DELTA Teacher Development Series)

ELT Lesson Observation and Feedback Handbook (2018) by (Jeanette Barsdell)

ELT Playbook Teacher Training (2019) by Sandy Millin (Sandy Millin Publishing)

Etpedia Teacher Training: 500 ideas for teacher training in English language teaching (2020) by Beth Melia-Leigh and Nicholas Northall (Pavillion elt)

The Lazy Teacher Trainer’s Handbook (2017) by Magnus Coney (2017) (the round.com)

A Practical Introduction to Teaching Training in ELT (2015) by John Hughes (Pavilion) 

Tasks for Teacher Education (1998) by Rosie Tanner and Catherine Green (Longman) 

Teacher Training Essentials (2010) by Craig Thaine (Cambridge)

Teaching Practice (1995) by Roger Gower, Diane Phillips and Steve Walters (Macmillan)

Trinity CertTESOL Companion (2017) by Jason Anderson (Delta Publishing)

Ways of Working with Teachers (2005) by Tessa Woodward (Tessa Woodward Publications)


Theory books for teacher trainers and educators

Advising and Supporting Teachers (2001) by Mick Randall and Barbara Thornton (CUP)

Language Teacher Education (1998) by Jon Roberts (Hodder Arnold Publishing)

The Routledge Handbook of English Language Teacher Education (2019) edited by Steve Walsh and Steve Mann (Routledge)

Second Language Teacher Education (2010) edited by Jack C. Richards and David Nunan (CUP)

Teacher Evaluation in Second Language Education (2014) edited by Amanda Howard and Helen Donaghue (Bloomsbury)

Training Foreign Language Teachers: A Reflective Approach (1991) by Michael J. Wallace (CUP)